Because clinical symptoms of GERD are treatable, efforts to recognize the presence of GERD should be made to preserve the quality of life of PD patients. However, there remains a certain limitation to interpret the results. We cannot exclude the possibility that our results were peculiar to the outpatient. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and clinical features of gastroesophageal reflex disease (GERD) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Consecutively recruited PD patients and controls were questioned about heartburn and GERD with a questionnaire.
Our patient-control study suggested that GERD, as defined by the FSSG score, was more prevalent in PD patients than in the healthy controls. The prevalence rate was 26.5%. The presence of PD increased the prevalence rate of GERD to 4.1 times higher than that of the age-matched controls. These findings indicated that PD can be a risk factor of GERD.
Reflux is another common problem that may precede the onset of pregnancy, begin with the onset of NVP, or worsen as the pregnancy progresses. Like NVP, the normal physiologic changes of pregnancy contribute to its development and often make management difficult.
The lower esophagus is one of the extra central nervous organs that share Lewy bodies, which are frequently found in Auerbach’s plexus. Pathological abnormalities may induce variable degrees of functional disorders in the lower esophagus.
Dopaminergic agents induce gastrointestinal problems by stimulating the peripheral dopaminergic receptors, which are mainly induced as nausea. A clinical review that has described adverse effects of dopaminergic agonists has addressed nausea as a popular adverse effect in the early stage of PD patients, whereas GERD or gastroesophageal influx has not been mentioned . Although nausea is a common clinical symptom of GERD, there is no evidence that nausea leads to GERD.
Although PD is still the most well-known movement disorder, growing recognition of variable nonmotor symptoms suggests that PD is a systemic disease. Nonmotor symptoms of PD are a major cause of disability for PD patients, and recognition and treatment of nonmotor symptoms are important to maintain comprehensive healthcare for PD patients [3, 10, 11].
Symptoms of autonomic dysfunction can impact more on quality of life than motor symptoms. Appropriate symptom-oriented diagnosis and symptomatic treatment as part of an interdisciplinary approach can greatly benefit the patient.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can induce motor fluctuations by interrupting the absorption of levodopa in PD patients [26-29]. Eradication of H.
The prevalence rate varies from 3% to 17.6% [19, 21-24]. We defined patients who had this postural abnormality, regardless of the degree of thoracolumbar flexion, and also complained of distress in their daily life because of the abnormal posture as having bent forward flexion because there are no unified and confirmed diagnostic criteria for abnormal posture in PD. In our study, the prevalence rate of bent forward flexion using this definition was relatively frequent compared with that in previous reports. test. Following this, we compared clinical characteristics of PD with or without GERD and examined the correlation of these characteristics with FSSG scores using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.