They also provide the accounting system within which the institutional classifications and functional distributions may be applied. The website www.innovationdata.be provides a set of indicators describing the progress made by Belgium and its Regions in the field of innovation. The website has been developed by the Federal Planning Bureau at the request of the Belgian Science Policy Office, following the Federal Government’s decision to create a transversal technology platform. The percent of GDP dedicated to R&D is the most significant indicator which notifies about the level of economic innovation in a particular country. The table below published by Eurostat depicts the data concerning Venture Capital Investment (code VENTURE) which is expressed as GDP (Gross Domestic Product at market prices).
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) provides a guide to conducting an R&D survey for countries starting to measure R&D (please find the link in the reference section below). In addition to summarizing main definitions and concepts from the Frascati Manual, this guide presents the relevant R&D indicators, addresses common issues encountered in data collection, provides a simple project management template, and proposes generic model questionnaires for the national government, Higher education, Business enterprise and Private non-profit sectors. Data for this indicator is collected through nationally representative R&D surveys primarily, which are conducted by the national statistical offices or relevant line ministries such as the ministry of science and technology.
R&D data are coherent with data obtained from the Innovation survey. Data are available for all users on the NSI website and on NSI information system INFOSTAT under the heading R&D, Information and Innovation Society. The statistical survey on research and development activity (R&D) provides internationally comparable information about the characterization of resources (expenditure and personnel) on research and development in Bulgaria. R&D personnel data is available in full-time equivalent (FTE), in head count (HC), as a % of employment and as a % of labour force.
Total intramural R&D expenditure (at current prices) (or gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)) performed on the national/regional territory during a given year, in millions of euro and as a percentage of GDP. The indicator thus includes domestically performed R&D which is financed from abroad but excludes R&D funds paid abroad.
Data Analysis Bulletin, 16, 91-103. In 2013, governments adopted the SEE 2020 Strategy mirroring its EU namesake, in which they commit to raising their R&D intensity and boosting the size of their highly skilled labour force. This strategy is complemented by the Western Balkans Regional Research and Development Strategy for Innovation (2013) promoting technology transfer from public research organizations to the private sector and greater collaboration with industry; it advocates smart specialization in high-opportunity areas, such as â€˜greenâ€™ energy and innovation, and includes a component promoted by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics of bringing the regionâ€™s statistics up to EU standards by 2018. In 2011 the total amount of the expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 429.6 million BGN or by 1.9% more in comparison with the previous year, as their growth compared to the previous years in absolute value had no impact on the R&D intensity (R&D expenditure as % of GDP) which is one of the key indicators for measuring progress of the European Union (EU) in achieving the targets of the new Europe 2020 strategy – a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The indicator ‘R&D expenditure’ is defined as all expenditures for R&D performed within a statistical unit, whatever the source of funds.
GERD includes expenditure by business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit expenditure on R&D. GERD includes total intramural expenditure on R&D performed within a country, funded and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad nationally. GERD tends to be under-represented in countries with a high % of SMEs and or with innovation in non-manufacturing sectors.
Derived indicator ‘Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP’ is one of the eight headline indicators of Europe 2020 strategy. R&D expenditure or in other words Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed in the national territory during a specific reference period.
The R&D intensity (the ratio of GERD to GDP) increased, rising from 1.31% in 2013 to 1.38% in 2014. In 2014, in current price terms Italyâ€™s gross domestic expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) was nearly 22,3 billion euro. It increased by 6.2% compared to 2013.
The R&D intensity amounted to 0.64% of GDP and was by 0.07 percentage points higher compared to 2011. The private component of expenditure on the intramural R&D (Business enterprises+Private non-profit sector) increased, rising from 57.7% of total R&D spent in 2013 to 58.3% in 2014. The contribution of government fell by 0.7 percentage points (from 14.0% to 13.3%). The contribution of the Higher education sector remained quite stable (from 28.3% to 28.4%).
In 2014, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 656.1 million BGN which was 25.8% more than the previous year. In 2015, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 847.2 million BGN which was 27.4% more than the previous year. In 2016, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 734.0 million BGN which was 13.7% less than the previous year. In 2017, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 760.2 million BGN, which was 3.5% more than the previous year.
“Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge “(Frascati Manual, 2015 edition, par 44). Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities.
The core statistics and related indicators cover innovation activities, cooperation, development, expenditures and turnover. Each survey wave may additionally include other indicators like innovation objectives or information sources and analyze further particular aspects or drivers of enterprise innovation (eco-innovation in 2008, skills and creativity in 2010). Science, innovation and technology are important drivers for the Europe 2020 growth strategy.
UTRGV and the National Center for Women in Information Technology (NCWIT) are collaborating to create a two-year plan to improve gender equality in computer science at the university. . It is displayed as a matrix of performing and funding sectors often. GERD and the GERD matrix form the basis of international comparisons of R&D expenditures.. GERD and the basis be formed by the GERD matrix of international comparisons of R&D expenditures.}.
This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, government and university laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. GERD is expressed as a share of GDP here. Nwaubani, J.C., Kapoulas, N., & Lepida, G.