Effect of processing on the particular dietary fibre content regarding meals
Linear regression analysis of the fecal water content and fecal SCFA pool in groups of rats (n = 7) fed a control diet (C), guar gum (GG), pectin (Pec), high amylose cornstarch (HAS), wheat bran (WB), a mixture of guar gum and pectin (GG + Pec), a mixture of guar gum and wheat bran (GG + WB) or a mixture of high amylose cornstarch and wheat bran (HAS + WB) for 13 d. Wheat bran, a more resistant type of fiber that has been shown to be comparatively slowly fermented in in vitro studies (24,25) was also included. Limited effect of consumption of uncooked (RS2) or retrograded (RS3) resistant starch on putative risk factors for colon cancer in healthy men. However, in practice, these potential adverse effects are not likely to cause problems at the levels of recommended intake if dietary fibre is derived from a variety of sources.
Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. This study was funded by the Lund University Antidiabetic Food Center, a VINNOVA VINN Excellence Center.
Recall from study of digestion that indigestible materials eventually amass in the lower sections of the large intestine forming faeces which are eliminated from the body by defecation. Examples of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) include arabinoxylans, dextrin, cellulose, and other plant-derived compounds such as inulin, lignin, waxes, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans and other carbohydrates with Î²-glycosidic linkages.
Components of dietary fiber vary from food to food, as noted in a comprehensive review by Selvendran (1984). Widdowson developed a table containing the estimated composition of dietary fiber in different foods (Paul and Southgate, 1978), but the method used to obtain these data has been criticized because the removal of starch is incomplete (Selvendran and Du Pont, 1980) and the calorimetric methods used to measure sugars are nonspecific (Hudson and Bailey, 1980). Increased stool volume observed after high intakes of dietary fiber is due in part to indigestible remnants of plant cell walls and in part to increased bacterial mass, but certain dietary fibers may also result in increased fecal nitrogen excretion. Some physiological effects of dietary fiber are systemic, whereas others are localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the physical and chemical properties of different dietary fiber components, such as viscosity, water-holding capacity, ion-exchange capacity, and binding capacity, have been studied, these properties do not adequately predict the physiological properties of specific dietary fibers and of high-fiber whole foods.
In general, fiber-rich diets, whether achieved through fiber supplementation or incorporation of high fiber foods into meals, have a reduced energy density compared with high fat diets. A study of 388,000 adults ages 50 to 71 for nine years found that the highest consumers of fiber were 22% less likely to die over this period. Fiber does not bind to minerals and vitamins and therefore does not restrict their absorption, but rather evidence exists that fermentable fiber sources improve absorption of minerals, especially calcium. Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes  Lowers total and LDL cholesterol, which may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease 
(1979) studied that the bread with potato peel instead of wheat bran was superior in the contents of certain minerals, in total dietary fibre, in water-holding capacity, in its lower quantity of starchy components and its lack of phytate. They reported that water-soluble dietary fibre content was not affected by any of the domestic cooking methods. The effect of domestic cooking on dietary fibre and starch composition of processed potato products were evaluated by Thed and Phillips (1995) and reported that microwave heating and deep fat frying reduces an appreciable amount if in-vitro digestible starch and significantly increases both the resistant starch (RS) and water-insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). In wheat bran it has been found that thermal treatments (boiling, cooking or roasting) originate an increase of total fibre that is not due to new synthesis, but rather to the formation of fibre-protein complexes that are resistant to heating and are quantified as dietary fibre (Caprez et al. Porosity and available surface can influence the fermentation of dietary fibre (availability to microbial degradation in the colon) while the regiochemistry of the surface layer may play a role in some physiochemical properties (adsorption or binding of some molecules) accounting for some physiological effects of dietary fibre.
- Most epidemiologic evidence on cancer relates to cancer of the colon, and the correlation between colon cancer rates and fiber consumption has been the subject of several studies.
- Yannakoulia M, Yiannakouris N, Melistas L, Kontogianni MD, Malagaris I, Mantzoros CS: A dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products and low consumption of refined cereals is positively associated with plasma adiponectin levels in healthy women.
- In general, fiber that increases the water content of your stool has a laxative effect, while fiber that adds to the dry mass of stool without increasing its water content may have a constipating effect.
- Six human subjects chewed glass beads and rinsed their mouth with 5 mL of water; thereafter the saliva was pooled.
For example, mechanical energy can also have profound effects on polysaccharides (Poutanen et al. The physico-chemical properties of fibre can be manipulated through treatments: chemical, enzymatic, mechanical (grinding), thermal or thermo mechanical (extrusion, cooked-extrusion, and controlled instantaneous decompression) to improve their functionality (Guillon and Champ 2000).
Intakes of fiber, presumably crude fiber, among complete vegetarians, lacto-ovovegetarians, and nonvegetarians were 7.9, 5.4, and 2.9 g/1,000 kcal, respectively, for males and 8.6, 5.2, and 3.1, respectively, for females. The USDA and NHANES II surveys indicate that men have a higher absolute daily intake of The 1-day fiber intakes of men 19 to 50 years of age surveyed in 1985 averaged 17.5 g/day (7.0 g/1,000 kcal) (USDA, 1986b).
Nawirska and Uklanska (2008) investigated and compared the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid dietary fibre (ADF) contents of the pomace obtained from the fruit and vegetable processing. The authors also determined insoluble dietary fibre content of raw chick peas, kidney beans and lentil samples by enzymatic modification of detergent method (ENDF) and compared the results with AOAC method. Almazan and Zhou (1995) studied the effect of reducing ethanol concentration from 76% to 41â€“56% for the precipitation of soluble dietary fibre in the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method 985.29.
The plant material in diet resistant to enzymatic digestion is termed as dietary fibre. In case of beverages and drinks, the addition of dietary fibre increases their viscosity and stability, soluble fibre being the most used because it is more dispersible in water than insoluble fibre. Rice bran supplementation significantly improved the dietary fibre, mineral and protein content of the cookies and moreover, cost of production was also reduced with proportionate increase of supplementation.
Lutsey PL, Jacobs DR, Kori S, Mayer-Davis E, Shea S, Steffen LM, Szklo M, Tracy R: Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study. Cani P, Neyrinck A, Fava F, Knauf C, Burcelin R, Tuohy K, Gibson G, Delzenne N: Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Sabico S, Oâ€™Hare JP, Ceriello A, Saravanan P, et al: High Fat Intake Leads to Acute Postprandial Exposure to Circulating Endotoxin in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects. BjÃ¶rck IME, Granfeldt YE, Liljeberg HGM, Tovar J, Asp N-G: Food properties affecting the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. ACN, EMÃ–, and IMEB designed the research; EVJ, ACN, EMÃ–, and IMEB supervised and/or conducted the research; EVJ analyzed data and performed statistical analysis; EVJ, ACN, EMÃ–, and IMEB wrote the paper; and ACN, EMÃ– and IMEB had primary responsibility for the final content.
It is difficult to explain the increased production of butyric acid in rats fed GG and Pec as a mixture. Topping and co-workers (23) reported that a mixture of gum arabic and cellulose was more efficient in generating butyric acid in the rat cecum than the individual substrates. As judged from the present work, the 1:1 mixture of Pec and GG seems to favor butyric acidâ€“producing bacteria. Interestingly, when these substrates were combined and fed to rats, a higher butyric acid yield was obtained. Rats fed GG had the highest amount of propionic acid, whereas rats fed Pec the highest proportion of acetic acid, which is in agreement with previous results in vitro (25) and in rats (13,14).