Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths’ behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern , directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern. and the absence of Wolbachia sp.
variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly . on the wings . Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations.
coloration, but also at genomic regions unlinked to color pattern . We observe high levels of divergence between the incipient species H. erato and H. himera, suggesting that divergence may accumulate early in the speciation process. Comparisons of genomic divergence between the incipient species and allopatric races suggest that limited gene flow cannot account for the observed high levels of divergence between the incipient species.
Under the low copper treatment, infection with mycorrhizal fungi did not affect seedling growth. The potential role of iron and phosphorus in affecting host metal tolerance was investigated. Changes in the tissue concentrations of these elements did not relate to the effect of the fungi on metal tolerance.
Narrow beam illumination of flat scales results in a narrow far-field iridescence pattern , but curved scales produce broadened patterns . The restricted spatial visibility of iridescence presumably plays a role in intraspecific signalling. Complex dynamics underlie the evolution of imperfect wing pattern convergence in butterflies. wings , although Dll alone may not be sufficient to induce a complete eyespot. This study thus experimentally supports the hypothesis of Dll function in eyespot development.
Johnson nutrient solution was applied to supply nutrition with four levels of nickel at 0 (control), 17, 51 and 68 ÂµM. Plants were grown for 50 days after sowing.
Glomus intraradices proved to be the most efficient AM fungal bioinoculant and thus have the potential to enhance commercial flower production of this plant. Sclerodermatoid fungi basidiomes were collected from northern Thailand and pure cultures were isolated. The morphology and molecular characteristics identified them as Astraeus odoratus, Phlebopus portentosus, Pisolithus albus and Scleroderma sinnamariense.
To assess the risk of ELA production by LA39, different methods, such as toxicity tests, stability tests and methods for environmental monitoring, were developed. Our results revealed that ELA is toxic to a wide array of organisms.
[History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China]. Food-plant niche selection rather than the presence of ant nests explains oviposition patterns in the myrmecophilous butterfly genus Maculinea. pollination in Clivia.
Serpentine soil is distributed throughout Japan and is characterized by excessive Mg and heavy metals (Ni, Cr, and Co) which can lead to suppressed plant growth. We examined the tolerance of the two Betula species by planting seedlings in serpentine and non-serpentine (brown forest) soils. The dry mass of each organ was suppressed in both birches planted in serpentine soil, and the photosynthetic rate was reduced by accumulation of Ni. Also, uptakes of K and Ca were inhibited by accumulation of Mg, Ni, Cr and Co. B.